execution of charles i
execution of charles i
In August 1619, the Bohemian diet chose as their monarch Frederick V, who was leader of the Protestant Union, while Ferdinand was elected Holy Roman Emperor in the imperial election.  Summoned again in March 1628, on 26 May Parliament adopted a Petition of Right, calling upon the king to acknowledge that he could not levy taxes without Parliament's consent, not impose martial law on civilians, not imprison them without due process, and not quarter troops in their homes. " Presaging the modern concept of command responsibility, the indictment held him "guilty of all the treasons, murders, rapines, burnings, spoils, desolations, damages and mischiefs to this nation, acted and committed in the said wars, or occasioned thereby.  The Chief Justices of the three common law courts of England – Henry Rolle, Oliver St John and John Wilde – all opposed the indictment as unlawful.  In May 1626, Charles nominated Buckingham as Chancellor of Cambridge University in a show of support, and had two members who had spoken against Buckingham—Dudley Digges and Sir John Eliot—arrested at the door of the House.  Furthermore, the Remonstrance had very little support in the House of Lords, which the Remonstrance attacked. Rather than endure another Civil War, Parliament invited the late King’s son to return to rule. Created: Jul 6, 2011 | Updated: Nov 12, 2018. By Andrew Marvell (1621–1678) Charles I. was executed at Whitehall on Jan. 30, 1649, and was buried on the same night in St. George’s Chapel, Windsor. The Scots were promised £400,000 in instalments.  Although the death of Buckingham effectively ended the war with Spain and eliminated his leadership as an issue, it did not end the conflicts between Charles and Parliament. Two years later he married the Bourbon princess Henrietta Maria of France. The Execution of King Charles I , Charles I, King of England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland Etching, Sheet: 7 5/16 × 5 5/8 in. Many of his subjects opposed his policies, in particular the levying of taxes without parliamentary consent, and perceived his actions as those of a tyrannical absolute monarch. Author: Created by leighbee23. Frederick's acceptance of the Bohemian crown in defiance of the emperor marked the beginning of the turmoil that would develop into the Thirty Years' War. Both were Henry and Elizabeth. She recorded every detail in her diary that evening. The monarchy was abolished and the Commonwealth of England was established as a republic. The royal marriage produced nine children, including future Charles II, and Mary Henrietta, who married William II of Orange. After the trial he was taken by sedan chair a short distance to his old room at Whitehall Palace. The two armies met at Newbury, Berkshire, on 20 September. John Milton wrote a Parliamentary rejoinder, the Eikonoklastes ("The Iconoclast"), but the response made little headway against the pathos of the royalist book. His stubborn refusal to compromise over power-sharing finally ignited civil war.  Laud prosecuted those who opposed his reforms in the Court of High Commission and the Star Chamber, the two most powerful courts in the land. The monarchy would be restored to Charles's son, Charles II, in 1660. " An estimated 300,000 people, or 6% of the population, died during the war.  To the dismay of the Scots, who had removed many traditional rituals from their liturgical practice, Charles insisted that the coronation be conducted using the Anglican rite. The royal marriage produced nine children, including future Charles II, and Mary Henrietta, who married William II of Orange. Charles also did not allow anyone except his wife to sit in his presence. , Bolstered by the failure of the English Short Parliament, the Scottish Parliament declared itself capable of governing without the king's consent, and in August 1640 the Covenanter army moved into the English county of Northumberland. Charles Ogilvie writes how Charles's continued misjudgments revealed that, if the world were to be made safe for the “Godly,” the King must be executed. The execution of Charles was effectively inevitable from Pride’s Purge. , Charles perceived the unrest in Scotland as a rebellion against his authority, precipitating the First Bishops' War in 1639.  In March 1640, the Irish Parliament duly voted in a subsidy of £180,000 with the promise to raise an army 9,000 strong by the end of May. Charles I and His Execution In order to consider whether Charles the first was responsible for his execution it is important to explore a number of different issues. He told the executioner that he would say a short prayer, and then give a signal that he was ready. , Over the first three days of the trial, whenever Charles was asked to plead, he refused, stating his objection with the words: "I would know by what power I am called hither, by what lawful authority...? It is said that Brandon, the official executioner could not be found. , The botched arrest attempt was politically disastrous for Charles.  Charles, who turned 12 two weeks later, became heir apparent.  The following morning, he called for two shirts to prevent the cold weather causing any noticeable shivers that the crowd could have mistaken for fear: "the season is so sharp as probably may make me shake, which some observers may imagine proceeds from fear. , Parliament held Charles under house arrest at Holdenby House in Northamptonshire until Cornet George Joyce took him by threat of force from Holdenby on 3 June in the name of the New Model Army. Charles Prince of Wales became Charles I was king of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 1625 until his execution in 1649. "We protest before your Majesty and the whole world that until this great person be removed from intermeddling with the great affairs of state, we are out of hope of any good success; and do fear that any money we shall or can give will, through his misemployment, be turned rather to the hurt and prejudice of this your kingdom than otherwise, as by lamentable experience we have found those large supplies formerly and lately given. " Charles abjectly declared "all my birds have flown", and was forced to retire, empty-handed. 'The Confession of Richard Brandon', 1649. They recommended making peace. Cromwell was responsible for the execution of the King. Strafford's administration had improved the Irish economy and boosted tax revenue, but had done so by heavy-handedly imposing order. An unsuccessful and unpopular attempt to marry him to the Spanish Habsburg princess Maria Anna culminated in an eight-month visit to Spain in 1623 that demonstrated the futility of the marriage negotiations. Cromwell was said to have visited Charles's coffin, sighing "Cruel necessity!"  He fled Hampton Court on 11 November, and from the shores of Southampton Water made contact with Colonel Robert Hammond, Parliamentary Governor of the Isle of Wight, whom he apparently believed to be sympathetic. , With the monarchy overthrown, England became a republic or "Commonwealth". Included in palace admission (members go free). , In the words of John Philipps Kenyon, "Charles Stuart is a man of contradictions and controversy". The Execution of Charles I In 1646, Charles surrendered. , Strafford had become the principal target of the Parliamentarians, particularly John Pym, and he went on trial for high treason on 22 March 1641. , The war continued indecisively over the next couple of years, and Henrietta Maria returned to Britain for 17 months from February 1643.  In the Treaty of Berwick, Charles regained custody of his Scottish fortresses and secured the dissolution of the Covenanters' interim government, albeit at the decisive concession that both the Scottish Parliament and General Assembly of the Scottish Church were called. This came three hours later. , Ten days after Charles's execution, on the day of his interment, a memoir purporting to be written by the king appeared for sale. Many watching were aghast, with one witness commenting 'There was such a groan by the thousands then present as I never heard before and desire I may never hear again’. Despite the protests of Northumberland, the Short Parliament (as it came to be known) was dissolved in May 1640, less than a month after it assembled. In England the central event of this important part of her historical evolution was the execution of Charles I which took place in 1649. The battle ended inconclusively as the daylight faded.  His close associates, including the Duke of Buckingham and the Earl of Arundel, shared his interest and have been dubbed the Whitehall Group.  In January 1649, the Rump House of Commons indicted him on a charge of treason, which was rejected by the House of Lords.  Despite Charles's agreement to provide the French with English ships as a condition of marrying Henrietta Maria, in 1627 he launched an attack on the French coast to defend the Huguenots at La Rochelle.  Charles's army did not engage the Covenanters as the king feared the defeat of his forces, whom he believed to be significantly outnumbered by the Scots. [d] Only Parliament, however, could legally raise taxes, and without it Charles's capacity to acquire funds for his treasury was limited to his customary rights and prerogatives.  The remaining members formed the Rump Parliament.  The clean strike, confirmed by an examination of the king's body at Windsor in 1813,[h] suggests that the execution was carried out by an experienced headsman. His wife, Henrietta Maria had fled abroad earlier in the war, and his other children were also in exile.  On 1 May 1625 Charles was married by proxy to the fifteen-year-old French princess Henrietta Maria in front of the doors of Notre Dame de Paris. From 1642, Charles fought the armies of the English and Scottish parliaments in the English Civil War. Marvel at Sir Peter Paul Rubens' ceiling in its original setting of Inigo Jones' spectacular Banqueting House.  Charles did not seek subsidies from the English Parliament to wage war, but instead raised an army without parliamentary aid and marched to Berwick-upon-Tweed, on the border of Scotland. , Against the background of this unrest, Charles faced bankruptcy in mid-1640. , Charles was moved to Hurst Castle at the end of 1648, and thereafter to Windsor Castle. ", He walked under guard from St James's Palace, where he had been confined, to the Palace of Whitehall, where an execution scaffold had been erected in front of the Banqueting House. In 1587, law, history and fact had been twisted to argue that a Scottish monarch owed the English monarch a duty of obedience.  In 1620, Charles's brother-in-law, Frederick V, was defeated at the Battle of White Mountain near Prague and his hereditary lands in the Electoral Palatinate were invaded by a Habsburg force from the Spanish Netherlands. , Charles suspected, probably correctly, that some members of the English Parliament had colluded with the invading Scots. He became heir apparent to the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland in 1612 on the death of his elder brother Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales.  Fifty-nine of the commissioners signed Charles's death warrant. as he did so.  After nine months of negotiations, the Scots finally arrived at an agreement with the English Parliament: in exchange for £100,000, and the promise of more money in the future,[g] the Scots withdrew from Newcastle and delivered Charles to the parliamentary commissioners in January 1647.  However, increased tensions and an attempted coup by royalist army officers in support of Strafford and in which Charles was involved began to sway the issue.  A cessation of arms, although not a final settlement, was negotiated in the humiliating Treaty of Ripon, signed in October 1640.  Returning northwards to his base at Oxford, he fought at Newbury for a second time before the winter closed in; the battle ended indecisively. The Execution of Charles I, 1649 Printer Friendly Version >>> K ing Charles I was his own worst enemy. To protect Montagu from the stricture of Puritan members of Parliament, Charles made the cleric one of his royal chaplains, increasing many Puritans' suspicions that Charles favoured Arminianism as a clandestine attempt to aid the resurgence of Catholicism. The Execution of Charles I by an Unknown Artist – formerly attributed to John Weesop. For example, James I ruled without Parliament between 1614 and 1621. Charles was found guilty of treason — a 'tyrant, traitor, murderer and Public Enemy'. , By 1604, when Charles was three-and-a-half, he was able to walk the length of the great hall at Dunfermline Palace without assistance, and it was decided that he was strong enough to make the journey to England to be reunited with his family. While those who signed the petition undertook to defend the king's "person, honour and estate", they also swore to preserve "the true reformed religion", parliament, and the "rights and liberties of the subjects". , Charles was accused of treason against England by using his power to pursue his personal interest rather than the good of the country. Image: King Charles I by Gerrit van Honthorst, 1628, © National Portrait Gallery, London. Charles, however, argued that there was no legal bar to collecting the tax for defence during peacetime and throughout the whole of the kingdom.  To prevent the king from dissolving it at will, Parliament passed the Triennial Act, which required Parliament to be summoned at least once every three years, and permitted the Lord Keeper and 12 peers to summon Parliament if the king failed to do so.  Even so, his public profile remained low in contrast to that of his physically stronger and taller[b] elder brother, Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, whom Charles adored and attempted to emulate. , The Long Parliament proved just as difficult for Charles as had the Short Parliament. " Despite Parliament's protests, however, Charles refused to dismiss his friend, dismissing Parliament instead. Originally published by Historic Royal Palaces, republished with permission for educational, non-commercial purposes. [e], The chief tax imposed by Charles was a feudal levy known as ship money, which proved even more unpopular, and lucrative, than tonnage and poundage before it. , Partly inspired by his visit to the Spanish court in 1623, Charles became a passionate and knowledgeable art collector, amassing one of the finest art collections ever assembled. He was a Stuart and the second son of James VI of Scotland.  Charles had seen Henrietta Maria in Paris while en route to Spain. A contemporaneous print showing the 1649 execution of Charles I outside the Banqueting House, Whitehall, London The beheading of Charles I on January 30th, 1649, left an indelible mark on the history of England and on the way that the English think about themselves.  Many MPs viewed the imposition of the tax as a breach of the Petition of Right. , With the encouragement of his Protestant advisers, James summoned the English Parliament in 1624 so that he could request subsidies for a war. , Prints. , After a few skirmishes, the opposing forces met in earnest at Edgehill, on 23 October 1642. When his father succeeded to the English throne in 1603 the family moved to London. About this Course; About this Lecturer; About this Course. When Charles II returned from exile in 1661 public opinion had swung right back behind the monarchy. They were permitted to visit him on 29 January, and he bade them a tearful farewell. Two of his children remained in England under the control of the Parliamentarians: Elizabeth and Henry. Please read our statement.   Charles was separated from spectators by large ranks of soldiers, and his last speech reached only those with him on the scaffold. The second son of King James VI of Scotland and Anne of Denmark, Charles was born in Dunfermline Palace, Fife, on 19 November 1600. Despite his crucial failings as a monarch, Charles was a true patron of the arts.  John Bradshaw acted as President of the Court, and the prosecution was led by the Solicitor General, John Cook. He had married Henrietta Maria of France the previous year. The following day, the king was brought before a public session of the commission, declared guilty, and sentenced. , James VI was the first cousin twice removed of Queen Elizabeth I of England, and when she died childless in March 1603, he became King of England as James I. Charles was a weak and sickly infant, and while his parents and older siblings left for England in April and early June that year, due to his fragile health, he remained in Scotland with his father's friend Lord Fyvie, appointed as his guardian.  He thought he was answerable only to God. His lack of empathy and refusal to consider opposing views led to his increasing unpopularity.  He was buried in private on 9 February 1649 in the Henry VIII vault in the chapel's quire, alongside the coffins of Henry VIII and Henry's third wife, Jane Seymour, in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.  When Charles returned to London in October, without a bride and to a rapturous and relieved public welcome, he and Buckingham pushed a reluctant King James to declare war on Spain. Our wonderful collection of gifts and souvenirs are all inspired by the Banqueting House. The following year, the Bohemians rebelled, defenestrating the Catholic governors.  The parliamentary army turned back towards London, and Charles set off in pursuit. But despite many opportunities, Charles refused to repent and seek a negotiated peace. However his … , Distrust of Charles's religious policies increased with his support of a controversial anti-Calvinist ecclesiastic, Richard Montagu, who was in disrepute among the Puritans. Arminian theology emphasised clerical authority and the individual's ability to reject or accept salvation, which opponents viewed as heretical and a potential vehicle for the reintroduction of Roman Catholicism.  In August, after the East India Company refused to grant a loan, Lord Cottington seized the company's stock of pepper and spices and sold it for £60,000 (far below its market value), promising to refund the money with interest later. Charles walked across the floor of Banqueting House, beneath the Rubens ceiling painting which 20 years before he had commissioned from Rubens.  His speech development was also slow, and he retained a stammer for the rest of his life.  By November, he determined that it would be in his best interests to escape – perhaps to France, Southern England or to Berwick-upon-Tweed, near the Scottish border. Once again, Charles's supporters fared badly at the polls. This Anthony van Dyck painting at Hampton Court Palace, dated to around 1637, shows Charles I's daughter Princess Mary at the age of five or six. The public began to mobilise around a reaffirmation of the National Covenant, whose signatories pledged to uphold the reformed religion of Scotland and reject any innovations that were not authorised by Kirk and Parliament. Charles I was given just three days to put his affairs in order and say goodbye to his family.  Furthermore, many members and most peers were opposed to the attainder, not wishing, in the words of one, to "commit murder with the sword of justice". The inscription reads: 'His majesty King Charles I passed through this hall and out of a window nearly over this tablet to the scaffold in Whitehall where he was beheaded on 30th January 1649'. A mere handful, possibly not more than a few hundred people, were really determined to put the King to death.  By Charles's death, there were an estimated 1,760 paintings, most of which were sold and dispersed by Parliament. He genuinely believed that a dictatorship was the only effective form of government. Churches, such as those at Falmouth and Tunbridge Wells, and Anglican devotional societies such as the Society of King Charles the Martyr, were founded in his honour.  Rumours of "papist" conspiracies circulated in England, and English anti-Catholic opinion was strengthened, damaging Charles's reputation and authority.  The Scottish soldiery, many of whom were veterans of the Thirty Years' War, had far greater morale and training compared to their English counterparts. It was effectively a military coup. Of the 493 members of the Commons returned in November, over 350 were opposed to the king.  As the Prince of Wales, he bore the royal arms differenced by a plain label Argent of three points. , A poorly conceived and executed naval expedition against Spain under the leadership of Buckingham went badly, and the House of Commons began proceedings for the impeachment of the duke.  For example, in 1637 William Prynne, Henry Burton and John Bastwick were pilloried, whipped and mutilated by cropping and imprisoned indefinitely for publishing anti-episcopal pamphlets. Charles, attempting to rally his men, rode forward but as he did so, Lord Carnwath seized his bridle and pulled him back, fearing for the king's safety.  Charles was deeply distressed.  He had trained up a large Catholic army in support of the king and had weakened the authority of the Irish Parliament, while continuing to confiscate land from Catholics for Protestant settlement at the same time as promoting a Laudian Anglicanism that was anathema to presbyterians.  When the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland met in November 1638, it condemned the new prayer book, abolished episcopal church government by bishops, and adopted presbyterian government by elders and deacons.  Charles also raised funds from the Scottish nobility, at the price of considerable acrimony, by the Act of Revocation (1625), whereby all gifts of royal or church land made to the nobility since 1540 were revoked, with continued ownership being subject to an annual rent. Charles raised an army using the medieval method of commission of array, and Parliament called for volunteers for its militia.  In 1611, he was made a Knight of the Garter.  Although it had been written, under Charles's direction, by Scottish bishops, many Scots resisted it, seeing the new prayer book as a vehicle for introducing Anglicanism to Scotland. After his succession in 1625, Charles quarrelled with the Parliament of England, which sought to curb his royal prerogative. , In his own words, the experience of battle had left Charles "exceedingly and deeply grieved".  Revered by high Tories who considered him a saintly martyr, he was condemned by Whig historians, such as Samuel Rawson Gardiner, who thought him duplicitous and delusional.  England was still the least taxed country in Europe, with no official excise and no regular direct taxation. The City of London, preoccupied with its own grievances, refused to make any loans to the king, as did foreign powers. In private, Charles was gentle and polite, by all accounts a loving father. Most fled abroad, or surrendered voluntarily to avoid execution.  By then, Charles's forces controlled roughly the Midlands, Wales, the West Country and northern England. , In mid-1642, both sides began to arm. The ten who refused to beg forgiveness were tried and sentenced to death.  In the end, however, the trip was an embarrassing failure.  Notwithstanding Buckingham's short-lived campaigns against both Spain and France, there was little financial capacity for Charles to wage wars overseas.  Charles assented to the petition on 7 June, but by the end of the month he had prorogued Parliament and re-asserted his right to collect customs duties without authorisation from Parliament.  Anglicans and royalists fashioned an image of martyrdom, and in the Convocations of Canterbury and York of 1660 King Charles the Martyr was added to the Church of England's liturgical calendar. For comparison, a typical farm labourer could earn 8d a day, or about £10 a year.  Although originally a critic of the king, Strafford defected to royal service in 1628 (due in part to Buckingham's persuasion), and had since emerged, alongside Laud, as the most influential of Charles's ministers. Charles was crowned on 2 February 1626, aged 25. When Charles ordered a parliamentary adjournment on 2 March, members held the Speaker, Sir John Finch, down in his chair so that the ending of the session could be delayed long enough for resolutions against Catholicism, Arminianism and tonnage and poundage to be read out and acclaimed by the chamber. They argued that the king had been led astray by malign counsellors, and that, moreover, a viceroy such as Strafford could emerge as a despotic figure instead of ensuring that the king was directly involved in governance.  Members of the House of Commons began to voice opposition to Charles's policies in light of the case of John Rolle, a Member of Parliament whose goods had been confiscated for failing to pay tonnage and poundage. 1068852).  By this time, mutual suspicion had developed between Parliament, which favoured army disbandment and presbyterianism, and the New Model Army, which was primarily officered by congregationalist Independents, who sought a greater political role.  He overwintered in Oxford, strengthening the city's defences and preparing for the next season's campaign.  Arminian divines had been one of the few sources of support for Charles's proposed Spanish marriage. " He claimed that no court had jurisdiction over a monarch, that his own authority to rule had been given to him by God and by the traditional laws of England, and that the power wielded by those trying him was only that of force of arms. Determined to maintain absolute power, Charles was out of step with the changing times. Parliament voted to grant a subsidy of £140,000, which was an insufficient sum for Charles's war plans. As a King, Charles I was disastrous; as a man, he faced his death with courage and dignity.  The High Court of Justice established by the Act consisted of 135 commissioners, but many either refused to serve or chose to stay away.  Strafford was taken into custody on 10 November; Laud was impeached on 18 December; John Finch, now Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, was impeached the following day, and he consequently fled to the Hague with Charles's permission on 21 December. , Meanwhile, domestic quarrels between Charles and Henrietta Maria were souring the early years of their marriage.  The married couple met in person on 13 June 1625 in Canterbury. Born and died the same day.  The idea of trying a king was a novel one. Disputes over her jointure, appointments to her household, and the practice of her religion culminated in the king expelling the vast majority of her French attendants in August 1626. , Unfortunately for James, negotiation with Spain proved generally unpopular, both with the public and with James's court. But was he guilty?  There followed a series of defeats for the royalists, and then the Siege of Oxford, from which Charles escaped (disguised as a servant) in April 1646. Just as at Edgehill, the battle stalemated at nightfall, and the armies disengaged.  Moreover, the House of Commons limited its authorisation for royal collection of tonnage and poundage (two varieties of customs duties) to a period of one year, although previous sovereigns since Henry VI had been granted the right for life. 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